routinator(1)                  routinator 0.5.0                  routinator(1)



NAME
       routinator - RPKI relying party software

SYNOPSIS
       routinator  [-b  base-dir]  [-r repository-dir] [-t tal-dir] [-x excep-
       tions-file  [-x  exceptions-file  [...]]]    [--strict]   [--rsync-com-
       mand=command] [--rsync-args=args] [--rsync-timeout=seconds] [--disable-
       rrdp]     [--rrdp-timeout=seconds]     [--rrdp-connect-timeout=seconds]
       [--rrdp-local-addr=addr]     [--rrdp-root-cert=path [...]]     [--rrdp-
       proxy=uri [...]]         [--dirty]         [--validation-threads=count]
       [-v|-vv|-q|-qq] [-h] [-V] command [args]

       routinator [options] init [-f]

       routinator  [options]  vrps  [-o output-file] [-f format] [-n] [-a asn]
       [-p prefix]

       routinator [options] validate [-n] [-j] [-a asn] [-p prefix]

       routinator [options] server [--rtr addr:port [...]]  [--http  addr:port
       [...]]    [--listen-systemd]   [--refresh  seconds]  [--retry  seconds]
       [--expire seconds] [--history count]

       routinator [options] update

       routinator man [-o file]



DESCRIPTION
       Routinator collects and processes Resource  Public  Key  Infrastructure
       (RPKI)  data.  It  validates the Route Origin Attestations contained in
       the data and makes them available to your BGP routing workflow.

       It can either run in one-shot mode outputting a list of validated route
       origins  in various formats or as a server for the RPKI-to-Router (RTR)
       protocol that routers often implement to access the data, or via HTTP.

       These modes and additional operations can be chosen  via commands.  For
       the available commands, see COMMANDS below.



OPTIONS
       The available options are:


       -c path, --config=path
              Provides  the  path to a file containing basic configuration. If
              this  option  is  not  given,  Routinator  will   try   to   use
              $HOME/.routinator.conf  if  that  exists. If that doesn't exist,
              either, default values for the options  as  descrined  here  are
              used.

              See  CONFIGURATION FILE below for more information on the format
              and contents of the configuration file.


       -b dir, --base-dir=dir
              Specifies the base directory  to  keep  status  information  in.
              Unless overwritten by the -r or -t options, the local repository
              will be kept in the sub-directory repository and the  TALs  will
              be kept in the sub-directory tals.

              If omitted, the base directory defaults to $HOME/.rpki-cache.


       -r dir, --repository-dir=dir
              Specifies the directory to keep the local repository in. This is
              the place where Routinator stores the RPKI data it has collected
              and  thus  is  a  copy  of all the data referenced via the trust
              anchors.


       -t dir, --tal-dir=dir
              Specifies the directory containing  the  trust  anchor  locators
              (TALs)  to  use.   Trust anchor locators are the starting points
              for collecting and validating RPKI data. See TRUST ANCHOR  LOCA-
              TORS  for  more  information  on  what should be present in this
              directory.


       -x file, --exceptions=file
              Provides the path to a local exceptions file. The option can  be
              used  multiple  times to specify more than one file to use. Each
              file is a JSON file as described in  RFC  8416.  It  lists  both
              route  origins that should be filtered out of the output as well
              as origins that should be added.


       --strict
              If this option is present, the repository will be  validated  in
              strict  mode following the requirements laid out by the standard
              documents very closely.  With the current RPKI repository, using
              this  option will lead to a rather large amount of invalid route
              origins and should therefore not be used in practice.

              See RELAXED VALIDATION below for more information.


       --rsync-command=command
              Provides the command to run for rsync. This is only the  command
              itself.   If  you  need  to  provide  options  to rsync, use the
              rsync-args configuration file setting instead.

              If this option is not given, Routinator will  simply  run  rsync
              and hope that it is in the path.


       --rsync-timeout=seconds
              Sets  the  number  of seconds an rsync command is allowed to run
              before it is terminated early.  This  protects  against  hanging
              rsync  commands  that  prevent  Routinator  from continuing. The
              default is 300 seconds which should be long  enough  except  for
              very slow networks.


       --disable-rrdp
              If  this option is present, RRDP is disabled and only rsync will
              be used.

       --rrdp-timeout=seconds
              Sets the timeout in seconds for any RRDP-related network  opera-
              tion, i.e., connects, reads, and writes. If this option is omit-
              ted, the default timeout of 30 seconds is used. Set  the  option
              to 0 to disable the timeout.


       --rrdp-connect-timeout=seconds
              Sets  the timeout in seconds for RRDP connect requests. If omit-
              ted, the general timeout will be used.


       --rrdp-local-addr=addr
              If present, sets the local address that the RRDP  client  should
              bind to when doing outgoing requests.


       --rrdp-root-cert=path
              This  option  provides a path to a file that contains a certifi-
              cate in PEM encoding that should be used as a  trusted  certifi-
              cate  for  HTTPS  server authentication. The option can be given
              more then once.

              Providing this option does not disable the set of regular  HTTPS
              authentication trust certificates.


       --rrdp-proxy=uri
              This option provides the URI of a proxy to use for all HTTP con-
              nections made by the RRDP client. It can be either an HTTP or  a
              SOCKS  URI. The option can be given multiple times in which case
              proxies are tried in the given order.


       --dirty
              If this option is present, unused files and directories will not
              be  deleted  from the repository directory after each validation
              run.

       --validation-threads=count
              Sets the number of threads to distribute work to for validation.
              Note  that  the current processing model validates trust anchors
              all in one go, so you are likely to see less than that number of
              threads used throughout the validation run.

       -v, --verbose
              Print more information. If given twice, even more information is
              printed.

              More specifically, a single -v increases the log level from  the
              default  of warn to info, specifying it more than once increases
              it to debug.

       -q, --quiet
              Print less information. Given twice, print nothing at all.

              A single -q will drop the log level to error.  Repeating -q more
              than once turns logging off completely.

       --syslog
              Redirect logging output to syslog.

              This option is implied if a command is used that causes Routina-
              tor to run in daemon mode.

       --syslog-facility=facility
              If logging to syslog is used, this option can be used to specify
              the syslog facility to use. The default is daemon.

       --logfile=path
              Redirect logging output to the given file.

       -h, --help
              Print some help information.

       -V, --version
              Print version information.



COMMANDS
       Routinator provides a number of operations around the local RPKI repos-
       itory.  These can be requested by providing different commands  on  the
       command line.


   init
       Prepares the local repositry directories and the TAL directory for run-
       ning Routinator. Specifically, makes sure the local  repository  direc-
       tory  exists,  and creates the TAL directory and fills it with the TALs
       of the five RIRs.

       For more information about TALs, see TRUST ANCHOR LOCATORS below.

       -f     Forces installation of  the  TALs  even  if  the  TAL  directory
              already exists.

       --accept-arin-rpa
              Before  you  can use the ARIN TAL, you need to agree to the ARIN
              Relying  Party   Agreement   (RPA).   You   can   find   it   at
              https://www.arin.net/resources/manage/rpki/rpa.pdf           and
              explicitely agree to it via this option. This explicit agreement
              is necessary in order to install the ARIN TAL.

       --decline-arin-rpa
              If,  after  reading the ARIN Relying Party Agreement, you decide
              you do not or cannot agree to it, this option allows you to skip
              installation  of  the  ARIN TAL. Note that this means Routinator
              will not have access to any information published for  resources
              assigned under ARIN.


   vrps
       This  command  requests that Routinator update the local repository and
       then validate the Route Origin Attestations in the repository and  out-
       put the valid route origins, which are also known as Validated ROA Pay-
       load or VRPs, as a list.

       -o file, --output=file
              Specifies the output file to write the list to. If  this  option
              is missing or file is - the list is printed to standard output.

       -f format, --format=format
              The output format to use. Routinator currently supports the fol-
              lowing formats:

              csv    The list is formatted as lines of comma-separated  values
                     of  the  prefix  in  slash  notation,  the maximum prefix
                     length, the autonomous system number, and an abbreviation
                     for  the trust anchor the entry is derived from. The lat-
                     ter is the name of the TAL  file  without  the  extension
                     .tal.

                     This is the default format used if the -f option is miss-
                     ing.

              csvext An extended version  of  csv  each  line  contains  these
                     comma-separated values: the rsync URI of the ROA the line
                     is taken from (or "N/A" if it isn't from a ROA), the  au-
                     tonomous system number, the prefix in slash notation, the
                     maximum prefix length, the not-before date and  not-after
                     date of the validity of the ROA.

                     This  format was used in the RIPE NCC RPKI Validator ver-
                     sion 1. That version produces one file per trust  anchor.
                     This  is  not  currently  supported  by Routinator -- all
                     entries will be in one single output file.

              json   The list is placed into a JSON object with a single  ele-
                     ment  roas  which  contains an array of objects with four
                     elements each: The autonomous system number of  the  net-
                     work  authorized to originate a prefix in asn, the prefix
                     in slash notation in prefix, the maximum prefix length of
                     the  announced  route  in maxLength, and the trust anchor
                     from which the authorization was  derived  in  ta.   This
                     format is identical to that produced by the RIPE NCC RPKI
                     Validator  except  for  different  naming  of  the  trust
                     anchor.  Routinator uses the name of the TAL file without
                     the extension .tal whereas the RIPE NCC Validator  has  a
                     dedicated name for each.

              openbgpd
                     Choosing  this format causes Routinator to produce a roa-
                     set configuration item for the OpenBGPD configuration.

              rpsl   This format produces a list  of  RPSL  objects  with  the
                     authorization  in  the  fields route, origin, and source.
                     In addition, the fields descr, mnt-by, created, and last-
                     modified,  are  present with more or less meaningful val-
                     ues.

              summary
                     This format produces a summary of the content of the RPKI
                     repository. For each trust anchor, it will print the num-
                     ber of verified ROAs and VRPs. Note that this format does
                     not  take  filters  into  account. It will always provide
                     numbers for the complete repository.

              none   This format produces no output whatsoever.

       -n, --noupdate
              The repository will not be updated before producing the list.

       --complete
              If any of the rsync commands needed  to  update  the  repository
              failed,  complete  the  operation  but provide exit status 2. If
              this option is not given, the operation will complete with  exit
              status 0 in this case.

       -a asn, --filter-asn=asn
              Only output VRPs for the given ASN. The option can be given mul-
              tiple times, in which case VRPs for all provided ASNs  are  pro-
              vided. ASNs can be given with or without the prefix AS.

       -p prefix, --filter-prefix=prefix
              Only  output  VRPs  with an address prefix that covers the given
              prefix, i.e., whose prefix is equal to or less specific than the
              given prefix. This will include VRPs regardless of their ASN and
              max length. In other words, the output  will  include  all  VRPs
              that need to be considered when deciding whether an announcement
              for the prefix is RPKI valid or invalid.

              The option can be given multiple times, in which case  VRPs  for
              all  prefixes  are provided. It can also be combined with one or
              more ASN filters. Then all matching VRPs are included. That  is,
              filters combine as "or" not "and."


   validate
       This  command can be used to perform RPKI route origin validation for a
       route announcement. Routinator  will  determine  whether  the  provided
       announcement is RPKI valid, invalid, or not found.

       -a asn, --asn=asn
              The AS number of the autonomous system that originated the route
              announcement. ASNs can be given with or without the prefix AS.

       -p prefix, --prefix=prefix
              The address prefix the route announcement is for.

       -j, --json
              A detailed analysis on the reasoning behind  the  validation  is
              printed  in  JSON format including lists of the VPRs that caused
              the particular result.  If this option  is  omitted,  Routinator
              will only print the determined state.

       -n, --noupdate
              The repository will not be updated before performing validation.

       --complete
              If  any  of  the  rsync commands needed to update the repository
              failed, complete the operation but provide  exit  status  2.  If
              this  option is not given, the operation will complete with exit
              status 0 in this case.


   server
       This command causes Routinator to act as  a  server  for  the  RPKI-to-
       Router (RTR) and HTTP protocols. In this mode, Routinator will read all
       the TALs (See TRUST ANCHOR LOCATORS below) and will  stay  attached  to
       the terminal unless the -d option is given.

       The  server  will  periodically  update the local repository, hourly by
       default, notify any clients of changes, and let  them  fetch  validated
       data.  It will not, however, reread the trust anchor locators. Thus, if
       you update them, you will have to restart Routinator.

       You can provide a number of addresses and ports to listen  on  for  RTR
       and  HTTP  through  command  line  options  or their configuration file
       equivalent.  Currently, Routinator will only start listening  on  these
       ports after an intitial validation run has finished.

       It will not listen on any sockets unless explicitely specified. It will
       still run and periodically update the repository. This might be  useful
       for use with vrps mode with the -n option.

       --rtr=addr:port
              Specifies a local address and port to listen on for incoming RTR
              connections.

              Routinator supports both protocol version 0 defined in RFC  6810
              and  version 1 defined in RFC 8210. However, it does not support
              router keys introduced in version  1.  IPv6  addresses  must  be
              enclosed in square brackets. You can provide the option multiple
              times to let Routinator listen on multiple address-port pairs.

       --http=addr:port
              Specifies the address and port to listen on  for  incoming  HTTP
              connections.  See HTTP SERVICE below for more information on the
              HTTP service provided by Routinator.

       --listen-systemd
              The RTR listening socket  will  be  acquired  from  systemd  via
              socket activation. Use this option together with systemds socket
              units to allow a Routinator running as a regular user to bind to
              the default RTR port 323.

              Currently,  all TCP listener sockets handed over by systemd will
              be used for the RTR protocol.

       --refresh=seconds
              The amount of seconds the server should wait after  having  fin-
              ished updating and validating the local repository before start-
              ing to update again. The next update will earlier if objects  in
              the repository expire earlier. The default value is 600 seconds.

       --retry=seconds
              The amount of seconds to suggest to an RTR client to wait before
              trying to request data again if that failed. The  default  value
              is 600 seconds, the value recommended in RFC 8210.

       --expire=seconds
              The amount of seconds to an RTR client can keep using data if it
              cannot refresh it. After that time, the  client  should  discard
              the  data.  Note  that this value was introduced in version 1 of
              the RTR protocol and is thus not relevant for clients that  only
              implement  version  0.  The default value, as recommended in RFC
              8210, is 7200 seconds.

       --history=count
              In RTR, a client can request to only receive  the  changes  that
              happened  since  the  last version of the data it had seen. This
              option sets how many change sets the server will at  most  keep.
              If  a client requests changes from an older version, it will get
              the current full set.

              Note that routers typically stay connected with their RTR server
              and therefore really only ever need one single change set. Addi-
              tionally, if RTR server or router are restarted, they will  have
              a  new  session with new change sets and need to exchange a full
              data set, too. Thus, increasing the  value  probably  only  ever
              increases memory consumption.

              The default value is 10.

       --pid-file=path
              States  a  file  which  will be used in daemon mode to store the
              processes PID.  While the process is running, it will  keep  the
              file locked.

       --working-dir=path
              The  working  directory  for the daemon process. In daemon mode,
              Routinator will change to this directory  while  detaching  from
              the terminal.

       --chroot=path
              The  root  directory  for  the daemon process. If this option is
              provided, the daemon process will change its root  directory  to
              the given directory. This will only work if all other paths pro-
              vided via the configuration or command line  options  are  under
              this directory.


   update
       Updates the local repository by resyncing all known publication points.
       The command will also validate the updated repository to  discover  any
       new  publication  points  that appear in the repository and fetch their
       data.

       As such, the command really is a shortcut for running  routinator  vrps
       -f none.

       --complete
              If  any  of  the  rsync commands needed to update the repository
              failed, complete the operation but provide  exit  status  2.  If
              this  option is not given, the operation will complete with exit
              status 0 in this case.


   man
       Displays the manual page, i.e., this page.

       -o file, --output=file
              If this option is provided, the manual page will be  written  to
              the  given  file  instead  of displaying it. Use - to output the
              manual page to standard output.



TRUST ANCHOR LOCATORS
       RPKI uses trust anchor locators, or TALs, to identify the location  and
       public keys of the trusted root CA certificates. Routinator keeps these
       TALs in files in the TAL directory which can be set by the  -t  option.
       If the -b option is used instead, the TAL directory will be in the sub-
       directory tals under  the  directory  specified  in  this  option.  The
       default  location,  if  no  options  are  used  at  all is $HOME/.rpki-
       cache/tals.

       This directory can be created and populated with the TALs of  the  five
       Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) via the init command.

       If  the  directory  does  exist,  Routinator will use all files with an
       extension of .tal in this directory. This means that you  can  add  and
       remove trust anchors by adding and removing files in this directory. If
       you add files, make sure they are in the format described by  RFC  7730
       or the upcoming RFC 8630.


CONFIGURATION FILE
       Instead  of providing all options on the command line, they can also be
       provided through a configuration file. Such  a  file  can  be  selected
       through  the  -c option. If no configuration file is specified this way
       but a file named $HOME/.routinator.conf is present, this file is used.

       The configuration file is a file in TOML format. In short, it  consists
       of  a sequence of key-value pairs, each on its own line. Strings are to
       be enclosed in double quotes. Lists can be given by enclosing a  comma-
       separated list of values in square brackets.

       The configuration file can contain the following entries. All path val-
       ues are interpreted relative to the directory the configuration file is
       located.   in.  All  values  can  be  overwritten  via the command line
       options.

       repository-dir
              A string containing the path to the directory to store the local
              repository in. This entry is mandatory.

       tal-dir
              A  string containing the path to the directory that contains the
              Trust Anchor Locators. This entry is mandatory.

       exceptions
              A list of strings, each containing the path to a file with local
              exceptions.  If missing, no local exception files are used.

       strict A   boolean  specifying  whether  strict  validation  should  be
              employed. If missing, strict validation will not be used.

       rsync-command
              A string specifying the command to use for  running  rsync.  The
              default is simply rsync.

       rsync-args
              A  list  of strings containing the arguments to be passed to the
              rsync command.  Each string is an argument of its own.

              If this option is not provided, Routinator will try to find  out
              if  your  rsync  understands the --contimeout option and, if so,
              will set it to 10 thus  letting  connection  attempts  time  out
              after  ten  seconds.  If  your  rsync is too old to support this
              option, no arguments are used.

       rsync-timeout
              An integer value specifying th number seconds an  rsync  command
              is  allowed to run before it is being terminated. The default if
              the value is missing is 300 seconds.


       disable-rrdp
              A boolean value that, if present and true, turns off the use  of
              RRDP.


       rrdp-timeout
              An  integer  value  that  provides  a timeout in seconds for all
              individual  RRDP-related  network  operations,  i.e.,  connects,
              reads, and writes. If the value is missing, a default timeout of
              30 seconds will be used. Set the value to 0 to turn the  timeout
              off.


       rrdp-connect-timeout
              An  integer  value  that, if present, sets a separate timeout in
              seconds for RRDP connect requests only.


       A string value that provides the local address to be used by RRDP  con-
       nections.


       A  list  of  strings each providing a path to a file containing a trust
       anchor
              certificate for HTTPS authentication  of  RRDP  connections.  In
              addition  to  the certiciates provided via this option, the sys-
              tem's own trust store is used.


       A list of string each providing the URI for a proxy for outgoing RRDP
              connections. The proxies are tried in order  for  each  request.
              HTTP and SOCKS5 proxies are supported.


       dirty  A  boolean  value  which, if true, specififies that unused files
              and directories should not be deleted from the repository direc-
              tory  after each validation run.  If left out, its value will be
              false and unused files will be deleted.

       validation-threads
              An integer value specifying the number of  threads  to  be  used
              during  validation  of the repository. If this value is missing,
              the number of CPUs in the system is used.

       log-level
              A string value specifying the maximum log level  for  which  log
              messages should be emitted. The default is warn.

       log    A  string  specifying where to send log messages to. This can be
              one of the following values:

              default
                     Log messages will be sent to standard error if Routinator
                     stays attached to the terminal or to syslog if it runs in
                     daemon mode.

              stderr Log messages will be sent to standard error.

              syslog Log messages will be sent to syslog.

              file   Log messages will be sent to the file  specified  through
                     the log-file configuration file entry.

              The  default  if  this  value  is  missing  is,  unsurprisingly,
              default.

       log-file
              A string value containing the path to a file to which  log  mes-
              sages  will be appended if the log configuration value is set to
              file.  In this case, the value is mandatory.

       syslog-facility
              A string value specifying the syslog facility to use for logging
              to  syslog.   The default value if this entry is missing is dae-
              mon.

       rtr-listen
              An array of string values each providing the  address  and  port
              which  the  RTR daemon should listen on in TCP mode. Address and
              port should be separated by a  colon.  IPv6  address  should  be
              enclosed in square braces.

       http-listen
              An  array  of  string values each providing the address and port
              which the HTTP service should listen on. Address and port should
              be  separated  by  a  colon.  IPv6 address should be enclosed in
              square braces.

       listen-systemd
              The RTR TCP listening socket will be acquired from  systemd  via
              socket activation. Use this option together with systemds socket
              units to allow a Routinator running as a regular user to bind to
              the default RTR port 323.

       refresh
              An  integer  value  specifying  the number of seconds Routinator
              should wait between consecutive validation runs in server  mode.
              The  next  validation run will happen earlier, if objects expire
              ealier. The default is 600 seconds.

       retry  An integer value specifying the number of seconds an RTR  client
              is  requested to wait after it failed to receive a data set. The
              default is 600 seconds.

       expire An integer value specifying the number of seconds an RTR  client
              is requested to use a data set if it cannot get an update before
              throwing it away and continuing with no data at all. The default
              is  7200 seconds.  if it cannot get an update before throwing it
              away and continuing with no data at all.  The  default  is  7200
              seconds.

       history-size
              An  integer  value  specifying  how  many change sets Routinator
              should keep in RTR server mode. The default is 10.

       pid-file
              A string value containing a path pointing to the PID file to  be
              used in daemon mode.

       working-dir
              A  string  value  containing a path to the working directory for
              the daemon process.

       chroot A string value containing the path any daemon process should use
              as its root directory.


HTTP SERVICE
       Routinator  can provide an HTTP service allowing to fetch the Validated
       ROA Payload in various formats. The service does not support HTTPS  and
       should only be used within the local network.

       The service only supports GET requests with the following paths:


       /csv   Returns the current set of VRPs in csv output format.

       /json  Returns the current set of VRPs in json output format.

       /metrics
              Returns  a  set  of  monitoring  metrics  in  the format used by
              Prometheus.

       /openbgpd
              Returns the current set of VRPs in openbgpd output format.

       /rpsl  Returns the current set of VRPs in rpsl output format.

       /status
              Returns the current status of the Routinator instance.  This  is
              similar  to  the  output  of the /metrics endpoint but in a more
              human friendly format.

       /version
              Returns the version of the Routinator instance.

       /api/v1/validity/as-number/prefix
              Returns a JSON object describing whether the route  announcement
              given  by its origin AS number and address preifx is RPKI valid,
              invalid, or not found.  The returned object is  compatible  with
              that  provided by the RIPE NCC RPKI Validator. For more informa-
              tion, see  https://www.ripe.net/support/documentation/developer-
              documentation/rpki-validator-api

       /validity?asn=as-number&prefix;=prefix
              Same as above but with a more form-friendly calling convention.


       The paths that output the current set of VRPs accept filter expressions
       to limit the VRPs returned in the form of a  query  string.  The  field
       filter-asn  can  be used to filter for ASNs and the field filter-prefix
       can be used to filter for prefixes. The fields can be repeated multiple
       times.

       This  works in the same way as the options of the same name to the vrps
       command.


RELAXED VALIDATION
       The documents defining RPKI include  a  number  of  very  strict  rules
       regarding  the  formatting of the objects published in the RPKI reposi-
       tory.  However, because PRKI  reuses  existing  technology,  real-world
       applications  produce  objects that do not follow these strict require-
       ments.

       As a consequence, a significant portion of the RPKI repository is actu-
       ally invalid if the rules are followed. We therefore introduce two val-
       idation modes: strict and relaxed. Strict mode rejects any object  that
       does  not  pass  all checks laid out by the relevant RFCs. Relaxed mode
       ignores a number of these checks.

       This memo documents the violations we encountered and are dealing  with
       in relaxed validation mode.


   Resource Certificates (RFC 6487)
       Resource  certificates  are  defined  as  a profile on the more general
       Internet PKI certificates defined in RFC 5280.


       Subject and Issuer
              The RFC restricts the type used  for  CommonName  attributes  to
              PrintableString,  allowing  only  a  subset of ASCII characters,
              while RFC 5280 allows a number of additional  string  types.  At
              least one CA produces resource certificates with Utf8Strings.

              In  relaxed  mode, we will only check that the general structure
              of the issuer and subject fields are correct and allow any  num-
              ber  and  types  of  attributes. This seems justified since RPKI
              explicitly does not use these fields.


   Signed Objects (RFC 6488)
       Signed objects are defined as a profile on CMS messages defined in  RFC
       5652.

       DER Encoding
              RFC  6488 demands all signed objects to be DER encoded while the
              more general CMS format allows any BER  encoding  --  DER  is  a
              stricter  subset  of  the more general BER. At least one CA does
              indeed produce BER encoded signed objects.

              In relaxed mode, we will allow BER encoding.

              Note that this isn't just nit-picking. In  BER  encoding,  octet
              strings  can  be broken up into a sequence of sub-strings. Since
              those strings are in some places used to carry  encoded  content
              themselves,  such  an  encoding  does make parsing significantly
              more difficult. At least one  CA  does  produce  such  broken-up
              strings.


EXIT STATUS
       Upon  success,  the  exit status 0 is returned. If any fatal error hap-
       pens, the exit status will be 1. Some  commands  provide  a  --complete
       option  which  will  cause  the exit status to be 2 if any of the rsync
       commands to update the repository fail.


AUTHOR
       Jaap Akkerhuis wrote the original version of this manual  page,  Martin
       Hoffmann extended it for later versions.


BUGS
       Sure.



NLnet Labs                       July 18, 2019                   routinator(1)